When Can You File An Appeal After Your Case is Decided

When Can I File Appeal in My Auto Accident Case?

In a recent appeal, a Georgia motorist argued that the trial court erred in dismissing her case against an insurance company and that the trial court erred in denying her motion to vacate that ruling. The plaintiff asserted the identical claims of error in an earlier, procedurally flawed appeal, that the Court of Appeals dismissed for lack of jurisdiction.


In a personal injury lawsuit arising from an auto accident, the plaintiff brought the case against the other driver and, under O.C.G.A. § 33-7-11(d), against Progressive Insurance–the plaintiff’s own insurance company through UIM. The trial court granted summary judgment on the plaintiff’s claim to Progressive, holding that her failure to provide timely notice of the accident barred any recovery. The plaintiff moved to vacate that ruling, and the trial court denied that motion.

The plaintiff then filed a notice of direct appeal, and Progressive moved to dismiss. The Georgia Court of Appeals granted that motion and dismissed the appeal, holding that the Court lacked jurisdiction for two reasons. First, the appeal from the ruling was untimely; second, the appeal from the ruling on the motion to vacate should have been pursued through the interlocutory appeal procedures (during the course of the action), as her  claim against the allegedly negligent driver was still pending in the trial court.

After the case returned to the trial court, the plaintiff filed a motion asking the trial court to enter a final judgment under O.C.G.A. § 9-11-54(b). Instead, the court entered an order dismissing the case with prejudice. The trial court found that its “earlier entry of summary judgment was on the sole matter remaining in this case and that there remained no issue for determination.” (The parties had settled the claims against the driver.)

The plaintiff then filed a notice of appeal from the dismissal order. That order was a final was a final judgment, normally subject to direct appeal. As she did in her second attempt, she argued that the trial court erred in granting summary judgment to Progressive and in its denial of her motion to vacate that summary judgment ruling.

Progressive moved to dismiss this appeal, arguing that because her first attempt to invoke the Court of Appeals’ jurisdiction failed, the appeal should be dismissed.

The Decision of the Court of Appeals

Presiding Judge Christopher J. McFadden of the Georgia Court of Appeals wrote that the plaintiff had the right to immediate appellate review from the trial court’s grant of partial summary judgment against her, even though that order didn’t dispose of the entire case. Also, she could’ve waited and appealed after the trial court issued a final judgment, the judge said. In other words, she wasn’t required to request a certificate of immediate review from the trial court under O.C.G.A. § 5-6-34(b).

The plaintiff opted to invoke her right to an immediate appeal from the summary judgment ruling under O.C.G.A. § 9-11-56(h), however, that appeal had to be dismissed because she didn’t file her notice of appeal within 30 days of the trial court’s summary judgment ruling. Judge McFadden explained that the Georgia Supreme Court has held:

A losing party on summary judgment who puts the machinery of immediate appellate review under O.C.G.A. § 9-11-56(h) into motion, yet commits a procedural default fatal to his appeal, is foreclosed from thereafter resubmitting the matter for review on appeal of the final judgment.

The judge explained that this rule didn’t apply directly to the order denying the motion to vacate summary judgment. That order was subject to the interlocutory appeal procedure in O.C.G.A. § 5-6-34(b). As such, the plaintiff didn’t have a right to an immediate appeal from that order. But while the rule didn’t apply directly to the appeal from the order denying the motion to set aside, it did render that appeal moot. Thus, reversing that order would have no practical effect, the judge concluded.

Because of this, the Court of Appeals was required to dismiss the appellate challenge to that order as moot. A case is moot, among other reasons, when it seeks to determine an issue which, if resolved, can’t have any practical effect on the underlying controversy. Even if the Court were to find, as the plaintiff alleged, that the trial court erred in denying her motion to vacate the summary judgment ruling, that resolution couldn’t now have any practical effect on the case. Her first direct appeal of that ruling was dismissed, and with the usual consequence that the ruling of the trial court, by operation of law, stood as if affirmed. The effect of that dismissal was binding upon the trial court, Judge McFadden explained.

As a result, the trial court would be without authority to modify the summary judgment ruling, which was res judicata between the parties. The plaintiff’s appellate challenge to the order denying her motion to vacate the summary judgment ruling was moot, and the appeal was dismissed. Harmon v. Progressive Premier Ins. Co. 2024 Ga. App. LEXIS 37 (Ga. App. January 26, 2024).

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